There are many kinds of data security, however the most important ones are:

Authentication is the process of confirming whether or not the people who have access to your data are authentically who they claim to be. This includes passwords and multifactor identification, as well as other methods of identity verification.

Encryption is the process of converting information to an unreadable format which means only those who have the required keys can read it. This protects sensitive information in transit and at rest, including files, databases and emails.

Monitoring – The process of blocking malicious actors from accessing or transferring data from your network by blocking or intercepting them at the gateway. This could include data loss prevention (DLP) as well as encryption and educating employees about the best practices.

Backups -The ability to quickly and safely restore data in the event of a system malfunction such as a cyberattack, disaster, or data breach. This can be achieved by creating a copy the data in a different format, or by storing it in the cloud.

Data minimization — The process of storing only the amount of data that is essential to your business. This reduces your vulnerability by cutting down on the number of potential targets for hackers. This reduces storage costs, and could prevent bloat that could cause compliance issues.